AP NOTES


AP NOTES AUGUST 2019 FORWARD


Each of UNITS 1-9 listed below has a title, defined by me, that is designed to encapsulate the content of each of the nine UNITS as defined by the College Board in their 2019 Course and Exam Description for AP Chemistry.

In addition to UNITS 1-9, in UNIT 0 I have included topic areas that I feel are necessary for the foundation of an AP Chemistry course, but that are not formally included in the nine CB units. These are some of the ideas that would normally be addressed in a traditional, first year chemistry course.

Each topic within each unit has a title (shown in green below) that is my interpretation of each of the Topic titles, Learning ObjectivesEnduring Understandings, and Essential Knowledge statements defined by the College Board. There are 91 topics/LO’s.

To help you to keep track of tweaks that occur over time within the notes, there are a few things that you can do;

  • Note the date and timestamps shown below, of the most updated versions of the PDF files, and check to see that the document you are referencing has a matching time-stamp (the time-stamp can be found in the footer of the PDF file).
  • Follow me on Twitter and the site’s Facebook page for the latest updates about the site and materials.

You can expect more significant changes each summer, after each operational and international practice exam have been released, and as I reflect upon the work of the previous year. These updates usually take place between memorial day and August 1st each year, and then the materials ‘settle’ somewhat for the majority of the school year.


UNIT 0: AP CHEMISTRY PREAMBLE (08/02/2019 08:13 AM)


TOPIC 0A: Chemistry, Scientific Method and Chemical & Physical Change

TOPIC 0B: Measurement

TOPIC 0C: Atomic Theory

TOPIC 0D: Nomenclature


UNIT 1: ATOMS, ELEMENTS & PERIODICITY (12/05/2019 9:48 AM)


TOPIC 1A: The Mole

TOPIC 1B: Isotopes and Mass Spectroscopy

TOPIC 1C: Empirical & Molecular Formula

TOPIC 1D: Pure & Impure

TOPIC 1E: Atoms & Electronic Configuration

TOPIC 1F: Photoelectron Spectroscopy

TOPIC 1G: Periodicity

TOPIC 1H: Formation of Ions


UNIT 2: CHEMICAL BONDING I (08/11/2019 10:15 AM)


TOPIC 2A: Sliding Scale of Bond Type

TOPIC 2B: Covalent Bond Length & Strength

TOPIC 2C: The Ionic Lattice

TOPIC 2D: Metallic Bonding & Alloys

TOPIC 2E: Lewis Structures

TOPIC 2F: Resonance & Formal Charge

TOPIC 2G: VSEPR & Hybridization


UNIT 3: CHEMICAL BONDING II & GASES (09/26/2019 10:50 AM)


TOPIC 3A: IMF’s & Ion-dipole Forces

TOPIC 3B: Types of Solids & Properties

TOPIC 3C: States of Matter

TOPIC 3D: Ideal Gases

TOPIC 3E: Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory

TOPIC 3F: Deviations from Ideal Behavior

TOPIC 3G: Solutions & Concentration

TOPIC 3H: Particulate Diagrams of Solutions

TOPIC 3I: Chromatography and Distillation

TOPIC 3J: Solubility of Solutes in Solvents

TOPIC 3K: Effect of Radiation on Matter

TOPIC 3L: Photons

TOPIC 3M: Beer’s Law


UNIT 4: CHEMICAL REACTIONS (10/30/2019 6:06 PM)


TOPIC 4A: Chemical & Physical Change

TOPIC 4B: Equations & Net Ionic Equations

TOPIC 4C: Particulate Representations of Equations

TOPIC 4D: Chemical & Physical Change in Terms of Bonds & Forces

TOPIC 4E: Stoichiometry

TOPIC 4F: Titrations I

TOPIC 4G: Types of Chemical Reaction

TOPIC 4H: Acid-Base Reactions

TOPIC 4I: REDOX Reactions


UNIT 5: CHEMICAL KINETICS (08/05/2019 6:57 AM)


TOPIC 5A: Factors Affecting Rates

TOPIC 5B: Rate Laws

TOPIC 5C: Rates, Graphs & Half-Life

TOPIC 5D: Elementary Steps

TOPIC 5E: Collision Theory

TOPIC 5F: Energy Profiles I

TOPIC 5G: Mechanisms

TOPIC 5H: Mechanisms & Rate Law

TOPIC 5I: Intermediates in Rate Determining Steps

TOPIC 5J: Energy Profiles II

TOPIC 5K: Catalysts


UNIT 6: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS I (09/26/2019 1:47 PM)


TOPIC 6A: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions

TOPIC 6B: Energy Diagrams

TOPIC 6C: Heat

TOPIC 6D: Calorimetry

TOPIC 6E: Heating & Cooling Curves

TOPIC 6F: Enthalpy

TOPIC 6G: Bond Enthalpy

TOPIC 6H: Enthalpy of Formation

TOPIC 6I: Hess’s Law


UNIT 7: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (09/03/2019 6:24 PM)


TOPIC 7A: Dynamic Equilibrium I

TOPIC 7B: Dynamic Equilibrium II

TOPIC 7C: Q & K

TOPIC 7D: Kc & Kp

TOPIC 7E: Large K & Small K

TOPIC 7F: Mathematical Manipulation of Q & K

TOPIC 7G: ICE Tables

TOPIC 7H: Particulate Representation of Equilibrium

TOPIC 7I: Le Châtelier’s Principle

TOPIC 7J: Q versus K and Equilibrium Shifts

TOPIC 7K: Ksp

TOPIC 7L: Common Ion Effect

TOPIC 7M: pH & Equilibrium Shifts

TOPIC 7N: ∆G°, ∆H°, ∆S° and Solubility


UNIT 8: ACID & BASE EQUILIBRIUM (08/15/2019 7:12 AM)


TOPIC 8A: pH, pOH & Kw

TOPIC 8B: Strong Acids & Bases

TOPIC 8C: Weak Acids & Bases, Ka & Kb

TOPIC 8D: Neutralization, and Partial Neutralization to create a Buffer

TOPIC 8E: Titrations II

TOPIC 8F: Structure of Acids & Bases

TOPIC 8G: pH of Buffers Relative to pKa

TOPIC 8H: Introduction to Buffers

TOPIC 8I: Henderson-Hasselbalch

TOPIC 8J: Capacity of Buffers


UNIT 9: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS II & ELECTROCHEMISTRY (09/15/2019 12:25 PM)


TOPIC 9A: Entropy Introduction

TOPIC 9B: Absolute Entropy & ∆S

TOPIC 9C: Gibb’s Free Energy & Thermodynamic Favorability

TOPIC 9D: Kinetic Control

TOPIC 9E: The Relationship between ∆G° and K

TOPIC 9F: Coupling

TOPIC 9G: Electrochemistry I

TOPIC 9H: Electrochemistry II

TOPIC 9I: Electrochemistry III,  Non-Standard Conditions

TOPIC 9J: Quantitative Aspects of Electrolytic Cells


AP NOTES AUGUST 2013 – MAY 2019


Each of UNITS 1-6 listed below has a title, defined by me, that is designed to encapsulate the content of each of the six Big Ideas as defined by the College Board in their 2014 Course and Exam Description for AP Chemistry. That CED, and hence these notes, have now been superseded by the 2019 CED and the notes above, However, since the difference between the 2014 and 2019 is extremely small in terms of the chemistry content, they remain potentially useful, so they stay available for now.

In addition to UNITS 1-6, in UNIT 0 I have included topic areas that I feel are necessary for the foundation of an AP Chemistry course, but that are not formally included in the Big Ideas. These are some of the ideas that would normally be addressed in a traditional, first year chemistry course.

Each topic within each unit has a title (shown in green below) that is my interpretation of each of the Enduring Understandings and Essential Knowledge statements defined by the College Board.

Within each topic there are references to each one of the 117 Learning Objectives, also defined by the College Board in the 2014 CED.

NOTE: The notes below will no longer undergo any updates, the last time they were edited is shown on the date and timestamps in red.


UNIT 0: AP CHEMISTRY PREAMBLE (07/31/2016 5:03 PM)

TOPIC 0A: Chemistry, Scientific Method and Chemical & Physical Change

TOPIC 0B: Measurement

TOPIC 0C: Atomic Theory

TOPIC 0D: Nomenclature


UNIT 1: ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY (08/31/2016 4:57 PM)

BIG IDEA 1

The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions.

TOPIC 1A: Atoms and The Elements

TOPIC 1B: Electrons

TOPIC 1C: The Periodic Table & Periodicity

TOPIC 1D: Mass Spectrometry and Spectroscopy

TOPIC 1E: Conservation of Atoms


UNIT 2: GASES & CHEMICAL BONDING (09/27/2018 3:20 PM)

BIG IDEA 2

Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

TOPIC 2A: States of Matter and Solutions

TOPIC 2B: Intermolecular Forces

TOPIC 2C: Intra Bonding

TOPIC 2D: Bonding and Properties of Solids


UNIT 3: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ENERGY CHANGES (08/09/2017 5:35 PM)

BIG IDEA 3

Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons.

TOPIC 3A: Chemical Reactions

TOPIC 3B: Types of Chemical Reaction

TOPIC 3C: Energy Changes & Electrochemistry


UNIT 4: CHEMICAL KINETICS (08/02/2016 5:45 PM)

BIG IDEA 4

Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

TOPIC 4A: Factors Affecting Rates

TOPIC 4B: Collision Theory

TOPIC 4C: Reaction Mechanisms

TOPIC 4D: Catalysts


UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS (01/04/2017 7:33 AM)

BIG IDEA 5

The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.

TOPIC 5A: Heat, Temperature and Kinetic Energy

TOPIC 5B: Work, Calorimetry and Conservation of Energy

TOPIC 5C: Breaking and Making Chemical Bonds

TOPIC 5D: Physical and Chemical Changes and Bonding

TOPIC 5E: Enthalpy, Entropy and Free Energy


UNIT 6: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (02/23/2017 4:48 PM)

BIG IDEA 6

Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations.

TOPIC 6A: Equilibrium

TOPIC 6B: Le Châtelier’s Principle

TOPIC 6C: Acid-Base Equilibria

TOPIC 6D: Free Energy and Equilibrium