AP Chemistry LO’s at a glance (2020- )

UNIT 01

Calculate quantities of a substance or its relative number of particles using dimensional analysis and the mole concept
Explain the quantitative relationship between the mass spectrum of an element and the masses of the element’s isotopes
Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the empirical formula of a pure substance
Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the composition
Represent the electron configuration of an element or ions of an element using the Aufbau principle
Explain the relationship between the photoelectron spectrum of an atom or ion and: a. The electron configuration of the species. b. The interactions between the electrons and the nucleus
Explain the relationship between trends in atomic properties of elements and electronic
Explain the relationship between trends in the reactivity of elements

UNIT 02

Explain the relationship between the type of bonding and the properties of the elements participating in the bond
Represent the relationship between potential energy and distance between atoms, based on factors that influence the interaction strength
Represent an ionic solid with a particulate model that is consistent with Coulomb’s Law and the properties of the constituent ions
Represent a metallic solid and/or alloy using a model to show essential characteristics of the structure and interactions
Represent a molecule with a Lewis diagram
Represent a molecule with a Lewis Diagram that accounts for resonance between equivalent structures of that uses formal charge to select between nonequivalent structures
Based on the relationship between Lewis diagrams, VSEPR theory, bond orders, and bond polarities: a. Explain structural properties of molecules b. Explain electron properties of molecules

UNIT 03

Explain the relationship between the chemical structures of molecules and the relative strength of their intermolecular forces when: a. The molecules are of the same chemical species. B. The molecules are of two different chemical species
Explain the relationship among the macroscopic properties of a substance, the particulate-level structure of the substance, and the interactions between these particles
Represent the differences between solid, liquid and gas phases using a particulate-level model
Explain the relationship between the macroscopic properties of a sample of gas or mixture of gases using the ideal gas law
Explain the relationship between the motion of particles and the macroscopic properties of gases with: a. The kinetic molecular theory (KMT). b. A particulate model. c. A graphical representation
Explain the relationship among the non-ideal behaviors of gases, interparticle forces and/or volumes
Calculate the number of solute particles, volume or molarity of solutions
Using particulate models for mixtures: a. Represent interactions between components. b. Represent concentrations of components.
Explain the relationship between the solubility of ionic and molecular compounds in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, and the intermolecular interactions between particles
Explain the relationship between a region of the electromagnetic spectrum and the types of molecular or electronic transitions associated with that region
Explain the properties of an absorbed or emitted photon in relationship to an electronic transition in an atom or molecule
Explain the amount of light absorbed by a solution of molecules or ions in relationship to the concentration, path length, and molar absorptivity

UNIT 04

Identify evidence of chemical and physical changes in matter
Represent changes in matter with a balanced chemical or net ionic equation: a. For physical changes. B. For given information about the identity of the reactants and/or product. c. For ions in a given chemical reaction
Represent a given chemical reaction of physical process with a consistent particulate model
Explain the relationship between the macroscopic characteristics and bond interactions for: a. Chemical processes b. Physical processes
Explain changes in the amounts of reactants and products based on the balanced reaction equation for a chemical process
Identify the equivalence point in a titration based on the amounts of the titrant and analyte, assuming the titration reaction goes to completion
Identify a reaction as acid-base, oxidation-reduction, or precipitation
Identify species as Brønsted-Lowry acids, bases, and/or conjugate acid-base pairs, based on proton-transfer involving those species
Represent a balanced REDOX reaction equation using half-reactions

UNIT 05

Explain the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and experimental parameters
Represent experimental data with a consistent rate law expression
Identify the rate law expression of a chemical reaction using data that show how the concentrations of reaction species change over time
Represent an elementary reaction as a rate law expression using stoichiometry
Explain the relationship between the rate of an elementary reaction and the frequency, energy, and orientation of molecular collisions
Represent the activation energy and overall energy change in an elementary reaction using a reaction energy profile
Identify the components of a reaction mechanism
Identify the rate law for a reaction from a mechanism in which the first step is rate limiting
Identify the rate law for a reaction from a mechanism in which the first step is not rate limiting
Represent the activation energy and overall energy change in a multi-step reaction with a reaction energy profile
Explain the relationship between the effect of a catalyst on a reaction and changes in the reaction mechanism

UNIT 06

Explain the relationship between experimental observations and energy changes associated with a chemical or physical transformation
Represent a chemical or physical transformation with an energy diagram
Explain the relationship between the transfer of thermal energy and molecular collisions
Calculate the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing heating/ cooling based on the amount of the substance, the heat capacity, and the change in temperature
Explain changes in the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing a phase transition based on the amount of the substance in moles and the molar enthalpy of the phase transition
Calculate the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing a chemical reaction in relationship to the amount of the reacting substance in moles and the molar enthalpy of reaction
Calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction based on the average bond energies of bonds broken and formed in the reaction
Calculate the enthalpy change for a chemical or physical process based on the standard enthalpies of formation
Represent a chemical or physical process as a sequence of steps
Explain the relationship between the enthalpy of a chemical or physical process and the sum of the enthalpies of the individual steps

UNIT 07

Explain the relationship between the occurrence of a reversible chemical or physical process, and the establishment of equilibrium, to experimental observations
Explain the relationship between the direction in which a reversible reaction proceeds and the relative rates of the forward and reverse reactions
Represent the reaction quotient Qc or Qp, for a reversible reaction, and the corresponding equilibrium expressions Kc = Qc or Kp = Qp
Calculate Kc or Kp based on experimental observations of concentrations or pressures at equilibrium
Explain the relationship between very large or very small values of K and the relative concentrations of chemical species at equilibrium
Represent a multi-step process with an overall equilibrium expression, using the constituent K expressions for each individual reaction
Identify the concentrations or partial pressures of chemical species at equilibrium based on the initial conditions and the equilibrium constant
Represent a system undergoing a reversible reaction with a particulate model
Identify the response of a system at equilibrium to an external stress, using Le Châtelier’s principle
Explain the relationships between Q, K, and the direction in which a reversible reaction will proceed to reach equilibrium
Calculate the solubility of a salt based on the value of Ksp for the salt
Identify the solubility of a salt, and/or the value of Ksp for the salt, based on the concentration of a common ion already present in solution
Identify the qualitative effect of changes in pH on the solubility of a salt
Explain the relationship between the solubility of a salt and changes in the enthalpy and entropy that occur in the dissolution process

UNIT 08

Calculate the values of pH and pOH, based on Kw and the concentration of all species present in a neutral solution of water
Calculate pH and pOH based on concentrations of all species in a solution of a strong acid or a strong base
Explain the relationship among pH, pOH, and concentrations of all species in a solution of a monoprotic weak acid or weak base
Explain the relationship among the concentrations of major species in a mixture of weak and strong acids and bases
Explain results from the titration of a mono- or polyprotic acid or base solution, in relation to the properties of the solution and its components
Explain the relationship between the strength of an acid or base and the structure of the molecule or ion
Explain the relationship between the predominant form of a weak acid or base in solution at a given pH and the pKa of the conjugate acid or the pKb of the conjugate base
Explain the relationship between the ability of a buffer to stabilize pH and the reactions that occur when an acid or a base is added to a buffered solution
Identify the pH of a buffer solution based on the identity and concentrations of the conjugate acid-base pair used to create the buffer
Explain the relationship between the buffer capacity of a solution and the relative concentrations of the conjugate acid and conjugate base components of the solution

UNIT 09

Identify the sign and relative magnitude of the entropy change associated with chemical or physical processes
Calculate the entropy change for a chemical or physical process based on the absolute entropies of the species involved in the process
Explain whether a physical or chemical process is thermodynamically favored based on an evaluation of ∆G°
Explain, in terms of kinetics, why a thermodynamically favored reaction might not occur at a measurable rate
Explain whether a process is thermodynamically favored using the relationships between K, ΔG°, and T
Explain the relationship between external sources of energy or coupled reactions and their ability to drive thermodynamically unfavorable processes
Explain the relationship between the physical components of an electrochemical cell and the overall operational principles of the cell
Explain whether an electrochemical cell is thermodynamically favored, based on its standard cell potential and the constituent half-reactions within the cell
Explain the relationship between deviations from standard cell conditions and changes in the cell potential
Calculate the amount of charge flow based on changes in the amounts of reactants and products in an electrochemical cell