**HONORS CHEMISTRY LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

The specific learning objectives for each topic in the Honors course are listed here.

**TOPIC 1 Matter & Measurement**

**ALL students should;**

- Recall a definition of chemistry
- Understand the process and stages of scientific (logical) problem solving
- Understand and be able to use scientific notation (standard form)
- Recall and use some SI units
- Be able to inter-convert between units using conversion factors
- Understand the concept of derived units and use relationships relating to density
- Recall, and be able to use the rules for determining significant figures and rounding off
- Understand the differences between, and be able to apply, the concepts of accuracy and precision
- Learn and be able to apply the formula for percentage error
- Learn and be able to use, formula for the conversion of the three different temperature units studied in TOPIC 1
- Recall the three states of matter and their general properties
- Recall the methods for converting between the three different states of matter
- Understand and recall definitions for physical and chemical change
- Understand heating & cooling curves
- Be able to recall and use the formula for calculating energy using specific heat capacity, enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization
- Know the difference between elements, mixtures and compounds

**TOPIC 2 Atoms & Atomic Theory**

**ALL students should;**

- Recall a very brief history of Atomic Theory
- Know and understand the five main aspects of Dalton’s Atomic Theory
- Recall some of the experiments that led to the identification of sub-atomic particles
- Know the three particles that make up the atom and their relative charges, masses and positions in the atom
- Be able to use the Atomic # and Mass # of an isotope to calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present
- Know what the term isotope means and be able to perform simple calculations relating to isotopic data

**TOPIC 3 Inorganic Compounds & Nomenclature**

**ALL students should;**

- Know the apporoximate locations of metals, non-metals and metalloids on the periodic table
- Understand the meaning of the terms Molecule and Ion
- Learn the lists of common anions and cations (including polyatomic ions) studied in TOPIC 3
- Know how to combine those anions and cations in the correct proportions to form ionic compounds with no net charge
- Be able to name binary ionic compounds of a metal and a non-metal
- Be able to name binary molecular compounds of two non-metals
- Be able to name simple binary acids
- Be able to name ionic compounds containing polyatomic anions
- Be able to name oxoacids and compounds containing oxoanions
- Be able to name hydrated salts

**TOPIC 4 Reactions & Stoichiometry**

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to write chemical equations in words
- Be able to write chemical equations using chemical formulae and chemical symbols (this requires knowledge, and correct use of, chemical nomenclature)
- Understand, and be able to use, state symbols as part of chemical equation writing
- Be able to balance chemical equations
- Understand why balancing chemical equations is important
- Understand the concept of percentage by mass
- Be able to calculate empirical formulae from percentage by mass data
- Be able to convert empirical formulae to molecular formulae by using RMM data
- Understand and be able to apply the concept of the mole in chemical calculations (including the application of Avogadro’s number)
- Be able to use combustion data to calculate empirical formulae of compounds
- Understand the importance of, and be able to apply, the concept of stoichiometric coefficents relating to reacting ratios
- Know how to calculate the number of moles of a solid substance present in a reaction from data
- Be able to perform calculations realting to Molarity
- Be able to perform calculations relating to dilution
- Be able to calculate the formulae of hydrated salts from experimental data
- Understand, and be able to apply, the concept of a limiting reactant
- Understand, and be able to apply, the concept of percentage yield

**TOPIC 5 Aqueous Solution**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand that a reaction in aqueous solution is one that is carried out in water
- Understand the terms electrolyte, weak electrolyte and non-electrolyte
- Understand the difference between, and be able to write, full, ionic and net ionic equations
- Learn and be able to apply solubility rules
- Recall that an acid can be defined as a hydrogen ion donor
- Recall that a base can be defined as a hydrogen ion acceptor
- Understand how the degree of ionization (dissociation) determines the strength of an acid and a base
- Understand that in a neutralization reaction an acid and base react to form a salt and water
- Understand that oxidation and reduction can be described in terms of loss and gain of electrons respectively
- Understand and be able to apply the Oxidation Number concept
- Understand the concept of disproportionation
- Understand and be able to recognize the different types of REDOX reaction. Namely synthesis (combination), decomposition, combustion, single and double displacement (replacement) including metal displacement, hydrogen displacement from water and acids and halogen displacement
- Learn and be able to use the reactivity series as a tool for predicting displacement reactions
- Be able to perform REDOX titration calculations

**TOPIC 6 Gases**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand the Kinetic Theory as applied to gases
- Be able to convert between different units of pressure
- Recall and be able to use Boyle’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use Charles’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use Avogadro’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use the Ideal gas law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use the Combined gas law and the General gas law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use Dalton’s law of partial pressures in calculations
- Recall the conditions that are used as standard in calculations
- Be able to use molar gas volume in calculations

**TOPIC 7 Electronic Configuration**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand the Bohr model of the atom
- Understand the concept of electrons in shells and the use of quantum numbers
- Understand the use of the terms s, p, d and f and their use in orbital notation
- Recall and understand the rules for filling orbitals (Aufbau, Pauli and Hund) and determining electronic configuration including the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity and notable exceptions
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of the elements using the s, p and d and f notation
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of the elements using the noble gas core
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of simple ions (including d block ions)
- Recall the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals
- Recall that orbitals are electron probability maps
- Be able to describe electronic configurations using the electrons in boxes notation
- Recall the meanings of the terms paramagnetic, diamagnetic and isoelectronic

**TOPIC 8 Periodicity**

**ALL students should;**

- Know what are meant by the terms, “group” and “period”, when applied to the periodic table
- Be able to recall the group names of groups 1, 2, 17 and 18
- Understand that regular, repeatable patterns occur in the periodic table
- Appreciate that these patterns sometimes have notable exceptions
- Recall and understand that the noble gases have full outer shells that represent stable electronic configurations
- Recall the definition of ionization energy
- Recall the definition of electron affinity
- Recall and understand the variation in ionization energy when moving about the periodic table
- Be able to predict the group an element is in from ionization energy data
- Recall how and why atomic and ionic size vary when moving about the periodic table
- Understand how many physical properties change gradually when moving about the periodic table
- Understand and recall the change in the specific chemical properties in TOPIC 8

**TOPIC 9 Bonding**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand that when forming chemical bonds atoms are attempting to form more stable electronic configurations
- Understand the essential difference between intra and inter bonding
- Understand the concept of ioinc bonding and the nature of the ionic bond
- Understand the concept of covalent bonding and the nature of the covalent bond
- Be able to draw Lewis structures
- Understand the concept of resonance and formal charge as related to Lewis structures
- Be able to predict the shape of, and bond angles in, simple molecules and ions using VSEPR theory
- Understand the concept of the dative (co-ordinate) bond related to Lewis structures
- Understand that ionic bonding and covalent bonding are at two ends of a sliding scale of bond type
- Understand the concept of electronegativity
- Understand that polarization caused by small highly charged cations leads to ionic compounds exhibiting some covalent character
- Understand that differences in electronegativity in covalent molecules causes dipoles and some ionic character in covalent compounds
- Understand under what circumstances molecules exhibit polarity
- Be able to predict the shapes of simple molecules and ions using Lewis structures
- Understand the occurrence, nature and relative strength of hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole interactions and London dispersion forces

**TOPIC 10 Thermochemistry**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand the meaning of the terms exothermic and endothermic
- Understand, be able to quote a definition and write suitable equations for standard enthalpy of formation
- Understand, be able to quote a definition and write suitable equations for standard enthalpy of combustion
- Understand and be able and use formation and combustion data in Hess’s Law and/or algerbreic manipulation calculations
- Understand and be able to use in calculations average bond energy terms
- Be able to draw Born-Haber cycles and perform associated calculations

**TOPIC 11 Equilibrium**

**ALL students should;**

- Understand the concept of dynamic equilibrium
- Be able to write an expression in terms of concentrations for the equilibrium constant Kc given in an equation
- Understand that equilibria take a finite time to be achieved
- Be able to calculate values for Kc and associated data from initial concentrations
- Be able to write an expression in terms of partial pressures for the equilibrium constant Kp given an equation
- Be able to calculate values for Kp and associated data from pressure data
- Recall and understand Le Chatelier’s Principle
- Understand the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and be able to predict the shift in position of equilibria and optimum conditions in reactions

**TOPIC 12 Acids & Bases**

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recall the Bronsted Lowry definition of an acid and a base
- Be able to identify acid base conjugate pairs
- Recall the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of ionization
- Be able to calculate pH of strong acids AND strong bases from hydrogen AND hydroxide ion concentration
- Be able to calculate pH of weak acids and weak bases using Ka and Kb
- Recall a definition of Kw, the ionic product of water
- Understand the principle and procedure of a titration
- Be able to sketch titration curves and be able to suggest a suitable indicator for a particular titration
- Understand the meaning of the term ‘equivalence point’
- Understand how indicators work

**TOPIC 13 Kinetics**

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recall AND understand Collision Theory
- Be able to recall AND understand how factors affect a rate of reaction
- Understand and be able to interpret a Maxwell-Boltzman distribution plot
- Understand and be able to interpret a reaction profile plot
- Be able to deduce orders, rate equations and rate constants (including units) from initial rate data
- Understand the link between the rate determining (slow step) in a reaction mechanism and the rate equation
- Understand and be able to interpret graphical data relating to rates

**TOPIC 14 Electrochemistry**

**ALL students should;**

- Recall the definition of oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons
- Understand and recall the definition of standard electrode potential
- Understand and recall how to construct a cell diagram and draw a line diagram of the apparatus needed
- Understand and be able to draw the standard hydrogen electrode
- Recall the conditions that standard electrode potentials are measured under
- Understand the nature and purpose of a salt bridge
- Be able to predict the likelihood or otherwise of chemical reactions using standard electrode potentials and understand how those predictions may not prove to be accurate
- Understand the application of the Nernst equation to cells operating under non-standard conditions
- Understand the REDOX nature of corrosion and know how it might be prevented
- Understand, in principle, the workings of a simple battery (cell)